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  I've heard from many  I ain't no Boy Scout, why do I need to do a bunch of Requirements for? I don't need to prove nothin to no body. That very well may be the case, but if one is not interested in doing the types of things that are listed in the Requirements or has done all the things and has no desire to do them again and teach and show others their skills. Then maybe the American Mountain Men is not the organization for you. For these requirements are the types of things that are at the very core of what we stand for and do as American Mountain Men. That's the way my stick floats any way.

These are all twenty of the requirements that one must do to become a Hiverano in the AMM. This is how I have fulfilled these requirements.

#1. Must have a full set of hand-cut and -sewn clothing and handmade accouterments. These must be researched for authenticity of the 1800-40 period and be of a type which would have been seen on men in, or moving to, the Rocky Mountains. Rifles, saddles, traps, blankets, and other accouterments that would normally have required the work of a specialized craftsman need not be handmade, but must be as authentic as can be purchased today.

My out fit has all been researched and is authenticity to a trapper of the early 1830's. Part of the list of sources I have used for researching my gear.
1. Alfred Jacob Miller his painting and field notes.
2. A history of costume by Carl Kohler
3. Journal of a Trapper  Osborne Russell
4. Life in the Rocky Mountains  Ferris
5.  Personal Narrative of James O. Pattie
6. Forty years a Fur Trader on the Upper Missouri    Larpenteur
8. Smith, Jackson and Sublette Articles of agreement with Ashley
9. The Columbia River Fishing and Trading Co. Account Book at
    Fort Hall.
10. Across  the Rockies to the Columbia by John Kirk Townsend
11. News of the Plains and Rockies Volume 1
12. A Narrative of Colonel  Robert Campbell's Experiences in the Rocky Mountain Fur Trade from 1825 TO 1835
13. Journal of John Work, Dec. 15th, 1825, to June 12th, 1826.
14. Travels in the Interior of America in the years 1809 to1811By John Bradbury.

All buckskin Items are brain tan that Jill and I have done ourselves.
All Items listed are hand sewn with hand spun linen thread.

My moccasins are side seem style. In summer they are made of elk or deer skin. Come winter I have a pair made of Buffalo with the hair side turned in for warmth. I also have another pair made with two sets of liners made out of heavy blanketing with an outer shell of buckskin that work very well. Having two sets of liners comes in handy, I always have a dry set on hand to change into.

For pants I have two sets. One is of the pantaloons narrow falls style made of buckskin that fits tight to the legs. Come trappin season I have a set of narrow fall knee Breeches made of brown canvas that I wear buckskin leggins over. When going in the water the leggings are removed, this set up works well for trapping.
Come winter I have a set of under drawers made of wool I wear with wool blanket boatas on the out side to keep my lower legs dry.

My shirts are drop sleeve. I have them made out of cotton, linen, fustian, wool and flannel, depending on the temp I can layer up to keep warm.
Over the shirts I have a wool short wasted vest that I  wear, of the style of the early 1800s. This has been a very useful item to my outfit for it adds warmth where ya need it.

My frock coat is made of buckskin and is fringed as was the style of the mountaineers.
A black silk scarf, a low crown hat of felt or a wolf ear hat of buckskin completes the out fit. In cold weather I some times tie a scarf on my head to help keep the ears warm under my hat.
I usually carry two knives, one that has a shape that is good for gutting and camp chores and other with more of a roach belly for skinning. Both are carried in scabbards made of rawhide beaver tails on a two inch wide leather belt. The belt is made from an old saddle cinch strap with a hand forged buckle, and I  usually have a beaver bait box hanging from it made of river birch.

My guns are three trade guns of different lengths and bores.  My pistol is 62. cal. smooth bore and my rifle is a full stock flat to the wrist Hawkin in 54 cal.. I know there has been a number of people talking them down saying that there was not that many of them brought out here and they were to high priced for the average trapper.  But I say they were out here and in numbers enough to make them a gun of the trade and I also believe when your life depends on your gun, that you would be willing to pay extra for a good gun. Most of the guns that were brought out here were for trade with the Indians so naturally there would be fewer of the higher priced guns brought out.

Camp gear consists of a bedroll made up of a piece of light weight oil cloth for ground cover, a couple of Whitney blankets and or a buffalo robe depending on the temperature, with a piece of 8'x8' canvas that can be used for a shelter.

For cooking utensils,  I have a three peace nesting set for pots and a sheet iron fry pan, For eating utensils I use my knife, fingers or a wood spoon I carved my self. I use a tin lined copper canteen to carry my water in. I also carry and use a small hand forged shovel. Both the shovel and the canteen do not show up much in the fur trade lists but they are both musts in this modern world we live in.

My saddle is an Ashley contract saddle made by Bob Schmidt. Under the saddle I use my two blankets and a buffalo hide epishamore,
the bit I use is hand forged snaffle on a tacked headstall.

Come winter I use Ojibway style snow shoes I made myself and use a seven foot ash toboggan that is glued and rawhided together, which I also made my self. Both these Items were used in and before the fur trade by the native Americans and were also used by the Trappers and Traders to get around on in deep winter.

#2. Must have spent at least two days and one night in a primitive camp during each season of the year.  

 I have fulfilled this requirement every year that I have been in the AMM. I will not list all the camps I have done but just one from each season to save room.
1998 (A) Winter camp 2/ 7&8 & 2/ 14& 15  Jill and I snowshoed in to Immigration Canyon, camped in six feet of snow. Dean Rudy joined us on the first weekend, Dave Tippets & Allen Hall joined us on the second weekend.
        (B) Spring camp 5/ 18,19,20 packed bedroll and fly in to Cache Valley Rendezvous for school days presentations where I did story telling for the kids, No AMM members were there but just to name a couple of my friends that were there Varmit and Leprechaun.
        (C) Summer camp  was at AMM nationals in Pierre's Hole 6/26 through 7/5. Me and the ponies spent most of our time packing everyone in and out . It was my first chance to get to meet everyone and I could not think of a better way than by giving them a hand getting into camp.  I will not try to list every one that was there but to meet  the When, Where, What and Who part of the writing up of the requirement. Brad Freeze my sponsor and Chas Rauch were there.
         (D) Fall camp 9/9-13 Camp was up on Caribou Mountain. The first three days I spent alone doing my Aux Aliment Du Pays requirement. I was joined for the last two days by Jill, Bill Koffmen, Brad Freeze and Colbee Freeze for our first Feast or Famine Camp. I might add, we all ate twice a day and did  not miss a meal for the whole time, no need to go hungry in these shining Mountains.
 1999 (A) winter camp was 2/ 15,16 we snowshoed in three miles to Huckleberry Hot Spring pulling in our camp on toboggans, snow was 4 to 5 feet deep, those present were Allen Hall, Jill, Dean Rudy, Mike Powell, Jim Langstein, Cody Merchant.
           (B) Spring camp 5/ 7&8 up Cherry Creek it was a camp to learn some of spring plants such as lomatium trirternatum, biscuit root, violets, watercress and young dandelion leaves were some of the plants we found all with in fifty yards of our camp. Those who were at this camp were Bill varga, Brad and Eric Freeze, Todd Glover, Rick Williams, Allen Hall, Yaro, Jill and I.
           (C) Summer camp five day horse back ride in to AMM National   on Dry creek by Gros Ventures River and five days at nations 6/26 to 7/6. Jill, Yaro Mike Powell and Allen Hall road with me.
           (D) Fall camp Feast or Famine camp in Morgan Meadows 9/17-19  We ate well at this one to with chokecherries, serviceberries, Yampa, rose hip and horse mint tea and fish. I camped with Allen, Dave Tippets, Ron Chamberlin.
2000 (A) winter camp up Blacksmith Fork Canyon 12/15&16 snow was not deep enough to use snow shoes but just enough to use the toboggans to hall camp in on. It was the party elections and planning meeting so pretty much every one was there. Cody Merchant, Ken Stanley, Allen Hall and Jill to name a few of those that I camped with.
        (B) Spring camp was a beaver trappin Camp 4/20,21 up on the Snake River by Fort Henry. Allen caught one large Beaver and I got one Beaver and a Raccoon and a couple of toes. I camped with Allen, Mike and Bill Varga.
       (C) Summer camp was up in northern Idaho AMM Nationals 7/ 1- 8, 2000 I camped with Jill of course, Yaro, Walt Hayward and Ron Archibald.
       (D) Fall camp was elk hunting up by Spencer Idaho 11/ 27 to 30 just Jill and I camped, Allen Hall came up and hunted with us on the last day.
2001 (A) Winter camp was up on the Hoback River in Wyoming 2/14-16 it was about a two mile snow shoe trip in up hill both ways on a side hill to boot. One to really test your toboggan handling skills. Jill and I made the trip in after dark in a snow storm. All I can say is we had our selves a lot of fun. We camped with Richard Ashburn Jr. and senurie, Bob Stromoger and Joe Funk.
       (B) Spring camp our Party put on a Student Rendezvous over by Idaho Falls 5/17-19 we had about 900 4th graders come to our camp we taught them the ways and skills of the Mountain men along with some history. Some of the boys at this camp were Allen, Mike, Todd, Rick W., Yaro, Wynn and Rick P. last but not least Jill.
      (C) Summer camp AMM Nationals that I was Boosway at, it was held on West Dry Creek  by Kilgor Idaho. I was camped there from 6/25 to 7/9. Tell ya what it's still a blur. Every one tells me it was a good one, I'll just have to take their word for it. I want to thank the Poison River Party for their help and support in making it happen. As for who was there just a bout the whole party and a bunch more.
      (D) Fall camp I did a three day elk hunt up by Spencer Idaho 11/ 27-29 by myself and had no luck the Elk were no where to be found.
Like I said at the beginning these are not all the camps I have done during this time frame I just picked one for each of the seasons. There were a lot more.
#3. Must have spent an accumulative time of two or more weeks in the wilderness under primitive conditions in the company of no more than one other member. Each stay must be at least three full days and two full nights.

Tell ya what, out of all the requirements this one has been the hardest for me. For when I go out to camp as a rule Jill is always with me and if one other person shows up it don't count. I ain't about to say no to any of my friends when they want to do a camp.

3 days.  Fall camp 9/9-11 1998 Camp was up on Caribou Mountain.  Three days I spent alone doing my Aux Aliment Du Pays requirement

3 days. Elk hunting up by Spencer Idaho 11/ 27 to 30 2000 Jill and I camped and hunt for three days with no meat made

3 days. Elk hunt up by Spencer Idaho 11/ 27-29 2001 by myself still no elk time to find a different spot to hunt.

5 days. Took a three day ride with Wynn over to Green canyon and back form my place. 5/ 3-5 As soon as we got in I trund around and went back for a nother two day stay by myself 5/ 5-7.

#4. Must have spent at least one full week in a primitive encampment in the company of other members at the territorial AMM Rendezvous (Eastern or Western) and/or the National (Rocky Mountain) AMM Rendezvous.

This one I have done just bout every Year too.
1998 AMM nationals in Pierris Hole 6/26 through 7/5. Me and the ponies spent most of our time packing in and out every one.

1999 AMM national  held of the Gros Ventures River and five days at nations  7/1-6.

2000 AMM Nationals 7/ 1-8. I camped with Jill, Yaro, Walt Hayward and Ron Archibald,

2001 AMM Nationals that I was Boosway at, it was held on West Dry Creek  by Kilgor Idaho. I was camped there from 6/25 to 7/9.

#5. Must be able to demonstrate the skills needed for primitive survival in the wilderness of his area and must be willing to teach said skills to other members when requested by a Party Booshway or Director of this Association.

This is one I have done over and over again.
I have showed the Party edible useable  plants.

At three of our Feast or Famine Camps in the fall 9/12-13 1998, 8/ 13-15 1999, 9/17-19 1999
And at any of our other camps when we come across edible or useable plants that I know I point them out.     .

At the 1999 Nationals and the 2001 Nationals I gave a Rocky Mountain Colleges on edible and useable plants.

I have also been involved in the writing of a few articles on this subject that have been published in the Tomahawk and Long Rifle.

I give a whole lot of credit to Bill Varga for my knowledge of plants that has grown over the years with his help.

#6. Must be able to demonstrate trapping ability using steel traps, snares, and traps made from natural materials found in the area. As many states do not allow the use of some, or any, of these traps, the actual taking of game is not required, although it is suggested where possible and legal.

As for snares and traps made from natural materials found in the area  I have never used any in the taking of game.
But at a Trapping camp up Logan Canyon April 9/10 1999 we did go though the different types with help from Mike Powell and did make some but not having a license for Utah I could not leave them out.

Agin, I have done more trapping then what is listed here.

April of 1999 Spring beaver camp at Heise hot spring on the Snake  River with Allen Hall I caught one that we ate  for camp meat.

2000  beaver trappin Camp 4/20,21 up on the Snake River by Fort Henry Allen caught one  large Beaver and I got one Beaver and a Raccoon and a couple of toes. I made my own Caster bait for this camp.  I camped with Allen, Mike and Bill Varga.

#7. Must be able to demonstrate ability to track man or animal under natural wilderness conditions.

If ya have done much hunting and trapping this is one skill you have to develop if your going to have any success. One must learn to tell the difference between a Doe and a Bucks track by the way they move on the trail and the size and shape of the tracks. Knowing these things will keep ya from spend the day tracking a doe when your hunting in a buck only hunt. Same with Elk- there are subtle differences in their tracks. A cow's  hind hooves are set out wider then the front legs so they will not be in line like a bulls. Then there is the size differences in there tracks too.  You can tell if an animal knows it is being followed  by the way it moves. This also comes in handy when finding one after it has been shot.  I could go on and on about tracking of the different animals but I don't think that is  needed here.
I have demonstrated my tracking ability to Rick Palmer on our Elk hunt on 11/17 1998 and to Rick and Allen Hall on our Elk hunt 12/1-2 1998.
and have  numerous times to Jill when we have been out hunting.

#8. Must be able to demonstrate the ability to properly pack a horse, canoe (or bulboat), or a man for distance travel under possible adverse conditions.

The first time I demonstrated this was at the Amm Nationals in 6/26 to 7/5 1998 when I used a pack horse to pack every one in and out of nationals.

The second time was when we did our five day ride in to nationals on Dry Creek  6/26 to 7/1 1999. We did not use a pack horse but I had to pack my gear on the horse I was riding.

The third time was when did a five day ride with Richard Ashburn and he hired me  as a wrangler for some of his clients and packed one of the pack horses for the ride.

One more time is when our party did a four day ride over by West Dry Creek in August of 2000 and I used a pack horse for that ride. Allen, Justin, Rick P., Ken and Wynn were with Jill and I on this ride.

In fact every time we have gone out and I have pack my gear in  I have demonstrated this.

One more thing I would add to this requirement is the ability to pack a toboggan which I have done quit a bit of too.

#9. Must be able to properly field dress (clean and skin) a game animal under primitive conditions.

I did this with Rick, Allen Hall and Jill on our Elk hunt 12/1-2 1998 when I got the calf elk.
Also so with the beaver I trapped at the camps above mentioned.

The birds I have taken on the trial and on my Aux Aliment Du Pays, just about every time I have taken a game animal while hunting or trapped from a primitive camp have done this.

#10. Must be able to start a fire in wet, as well as dry, weather using flint and steel or fire drill using tinder and wood found under natural conditions.

It rained two of the three days I spent alone on my Aux Aliment Du Pays 9/9-11 1998 and I had to start a fire.

It snowed on us on the elk hunt with Rick, Allen and Jill 12/1-2 1998 and I started a fire with what was around camp.

With all the camps I have done, I have had to make fires in all kinds of weather and have made them with flint and steel and with what tinder was at hand I see no need to list them all.

#11. Must be able to show ability to tan or Indian-dress hides.

I have given Colleges on brain tanning at Nations in 1998 and in 1999.
Have helped members of the party with their tanning. The buckskin in my outfit has all been tanned by my self or with Jill.

#12. Must have spent at least five days traveling on foot, snowshoe, canoe, and/or horseback.
a. One method or a combination may be used.
b. Bull boat may be used in place of canoe.
c. You are expected to gain as much distance as possible.
d. This trip must be under primitive conditions, taking nothing that would not have been available to the mountain man between 1800-1840. Rifle, hunting bag, powder horn, and knife must be along.

Five day horse back ride in to AMM National on Dry creek by Gros Ventures River and five days at nationals 6/26 to 7/6 1999. Jill, Yaro Mike Powell and Allen Hall road with me.

Five day ride with Richard Ashburn I packed one of the pack horses for the ride 9/22-27 2000.

#13. Must be able to cook a meal of meat using only the meat, fire, a knife, and materials found in nature.

I have done this on a number of our camps in fact at most of them. I am partial to meat roasted on a stick or just throwed on the coals and roasted.
One of the camps I did this at was National 2001 with Yaro and Jill.

#14. Must be able to converse using Plains Indians hand talk. The 200 words on page 64 of Tompkin's book "Indian Sign Language", will be used as a basis for conversation. To complete this requirement, you must demonstrate your ability to read the signs for 50 words, as well as to give the signs for 50 words.
I passed this one off at Osborne Russell Feast camp at Fort B. With Chas Rauch January 2 1999.

Since passing this requirement off I have worked with other members in the party to help them learn and pass this requirement. I have found it very useful when hunting with members of the party or just conversing with Jill. It is amazing the different names you can be called using Sign!

#15.  Have at least three full years as Bossloper in this Association
I join the AMM January 1998 turned in my Bossloper papers January 1999

#16. Must have hunted for and killed at least one game or fur animal with a muzzleloading firearm or primitive bow and must have used the skin and/or meat for food, clothing and/or accouterments. The hunt must be made from a strictly primitive camp, the hunt accomplished under primitive conditions within the limits of local game laws.

I got four grouse on  my Aux Aliment Du Pays 9/9-11 1998 up on Morgan Meadows

I did this with Rick, Allen Hall and Jill on our Elk hunt 12/1-2 1998 when I got the calf elk up by Spencer Idaho. Mighty fine eating it was, too! I did brain tan its hide and used it for several small projects.  

#17. Be able to properly skin an animal and prepare the skin or hide for market.

I did this with the Beaver I caught at the camps above mentioned When I skinned and hooped them and cleaned them up.

I have also done this when I have tanned hides and sold them.
#18. Have served as Booshway for at least two activities of this Association.
I was Booshway of the Poison River Party for the year of 2001

I was also the Booshway at the 2001 AMM Nationals.

I have also been Booshway for several of our camps we have had.
Just to name one was our planning camp for this year held at the Fort Hall replica 1/16-17 2002.

#19. Spent at least three full days and two nights totally alone under primitive conditions and AUX ALIMENT DU PAYS ( lives from the land).

I did my five day Aux Aliment Du Pays 9/9-13 1998 up on Morgan Meadows.
If had not already used this requirement for my Bosloper I would give you a day to day out of my journal. But beings how I have  I'll just give a run down on what I ate.
 Day 1 I ate chokecherries, service berries, rose hips for tea, made gruel out of berries.
Day 2 made breakfast of berry gruel and tea of rose hips and horse mint. I got a Grouse that day to add to the fare so for dinner I had my Chokecherries and service berries mixed with some cattail root that I had soaked all day then boiled and pounded in to a kind of mush that was mixed with the berries, with the tea again that all made a very fine meal.
Day 3 broke my fast on left overs. Went and got more berries and ran in to two more grouse, and on the way back to camp got another grouse so for lunch I had part of the grouse and some berries. That night I was joined by Jill and Bill Kaufmen, whom I fed that night and morning all on my left overs. We were joined the next day by Brad Freeze and his son .  We were going to spend the next two days on the first Feast or Famine camp. We all managed to eat twice a day as I had for the first three days. Ain't no need to go hungry in these shinin Mountains. Waugh!    

#20. Have made a study and written report of the lifestyle of Mountain Men ( or Frontiersmen or American Indians) pre-1840 and must submit a copy of such along with this application  form to Brigade Booshway of this Association.

I submit this web site and the article Mountianeer Survival Skills?